In a study of 40 dogs by Kyles, the short-term mortality rate was evaluated in regards to the presence of caval tumor thrombus. Reportedly, tumor thrombus was seen in 25% of all dogs. Eleven percent of adenocarcinomas had tumor thrombus and 55% of pheochromocytomas had tumor thrombus. As mentioned there was no difference in the perioperative death rate regardless of presence or absence of tumor thrombus. The perioperative death rate was 21% for adenocarcinomas and 18% for pheochromocytomas. Previously, pheochromocytomas patients have a high perioperative mortality rate, but the addition of protocols that include administration of high doses of phenoxybenzamine (as high as mg/kg twice daily) have reduced the death rate.
Liver disease can be prevented by following the right lifestyle and diet. Vaccinations that protect from Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B are widely available. Weight control, giving up smoking and alcohol, exercising regularly and a well-balanced diet will reduces the chances of developing a liver disease. Awareness about liver diseases must be increased. The causes and the complications of a liver disease need to be highlighted. The medications that lead to a liver disease also need to be stopped or their intake must be controlled and minimal. For instance, an overdose of acetaminophen or Tylenol will invariably cause a liver failure. Therefore one must never indulge in self medication.