Population genetics is essentially a study of the causes and effects of genetic variation within and between populations, and in the past, isozymes have been amongst the most widely used molecular markers for this purpose. Although they have now been largely superseded by more informative DNA -based approaches (such as direct DNA sequencing , single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites ), they are still amongst the quickest and cheapest marker systems to develop, and remain (as of 2005 [update] ) an excellent choice for projects that only need to identify low levels of genetic variation, . quantifying mating systems .
The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals is a collection of about 150 of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to identify and characterise potential hazards of chemicals. They are a set of tools for professionals, used primarily in regulatory safety testing and subsequent chemical and chemical product notification, chemical registration and in chemical evaluation. They can also be used for the selection and ranking of candidate chemicals during the development of new chemicals and products and in toxicology research. This group of tests covers health effects.
A polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps sinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine, protects PC12 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury.
Life Sci. 2003.
Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, possesses activities in anti-tumor, anti-oxidation and stimulating the immune system. We found a polysaccharide which protects against free radical-induced neuronal cell toxicity.
Question to Dr. Sahelian from the editor of a magazine regarding Optygen, which has cordyceps sinesis and rhodiola.
I did take a look at the Optygen website. Basically, rhodiola has been used extensively in Russia by athletes and there's been a lot of research there showing rhodiola is able to fight fatigue and lower stress. There was a study with cordyceps (brand name CordyMax) that did not show improvement in cycling endurance. In order to say for sure whether this product works, we will need a full study which is quite expensive. Therefore, we can say that some of the ingredients in Optygen may be helpful, but we can't say for sure whether the product itself will be found to be proven helpful in studies. Also, the dose could make a difference. Too low a dose may not work, while too high a dose may cause excessive stimulation and disturb sleep which as we all know can lead to exhaustion. The bottom line: People who wish to take this product can give it a try and see if it works in their case.