29 Honey bee larval toxicity tests complement OECD TGs 213 and 214 on young adult honey bees and should be seen as a lower tier screening test.
30 “Generally, waivers are considered when there is little or no significant human exposure by a given route of exposure or when it is technically not possible to perform a study for a certain endpoint, such as not requiring an acute oral toxicity study when the test chemical exists as a vapour or gas. Waivers are also possible taking into account animal welfare considerations, such as when the test chemical is corrosive.”
31 U-SENS™ is proposed to address the third key event of the skin sensitization AOP; recommended by EURL ECVAM as part of an IATA to support discrimination between sensitizers and non-sensitizers for hazard classification and labelling.
32 “IL-8 Luc assay is proposed to address the third key event (dendritic cell activation) of the skin sensitisation AOP by quantifying changes in the expression of cytokine associated with the process of activation of DC (. IL-8), in the human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1-derived IL-8 reporter cell line, THP-G8, following exposure to sensitisers.”
33 EPAA-IIVS Video of 3T3 NRU Phototoxicity Assay.
34 EPAA-IIVS Video of BCOP Eye Irritation Assay.
A 2007 study investigated the interaction between bisphenol A's and estrogen-related receptor γ (ERR-γ). This orphan receptor (endogenous ligand unknown) behaves as a constitutive activator of transcription. BPA seems to bind strongly to ERR-γ ( dissociation constant = nM), but only weakly to the ER.  BPA binding to ERR-γ preserves its basal constitutive activity.  It can also protect it from deactivation from the SERM 4-hydroxytamoxifen (afimoxifene).  This may be the mechanism by which BPA acts as a xenoestrogen .  Different expression of ERR-γ in different parts of the body may account for variations in bisphenol A effects. For instance, ERR-γ has been found in high concentration in the placenta , explaining reports of high bisphenol accumulation in this tissue.  BPA has also been found to act as an agonist of the GPER (GPR30).