These case reports indicate fluoroscopic guidance will not insure or prevent intrathecal perforation or spinal cord penetration during the administration of cervical epidural steroid injections. In addition, although intravenous sedations during cervical epidural steroid injections have been used numerous times without reported complications, it appears intravenous sedation in these two cases resulted in the inability of the patient to experience the expected pain and paresthesias at the time of spinal cord irritation. Therefore, the authors conclude that the patient should be fully awake during the administration of cervical epidural steroid injections, with only local anesthetic in the skin used for analgesia.
The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.