Steroid hormone receptors and their regulation by phosphorylation

It was decades later that the secret behind this spectacular success became known.  The East German Sports Federation had, with the help of the Stasi, used Performance Enhancing Drugs or PEDs to ensure that their athletes gained international recognition by winning the Olympic events. This systematic plan had been initiated in 1974 as a means to guarantee international glory through the achievement of gold medals at the prestigious sporting event. Oral- Turinabol , a testosterone derivative was used extensively to improve muscle mass and cut down recovery time. This allowed the German athletes to train harder and longer than other world athletes. 

Many hormones and their structural and functional analogs are used as medication . The most commonly prescribed hormones are estrogens and progestogens (as methods of hormonal contraception and as HRT ), [12] thyroxine (as levothyroxine , for hypothyroidism ) and steroids (for autoimmune diseases and several respiratory disorders ). Insulin is used by many diabetics . Local preparations for use in otolaryngology often contain pharmacologic equivalents of adrenaline , while steroid and vitamin D creams are used extensively in dermatological practice.

Cells of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis lack aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) that converts corticosterone to aldosterone, and thus these tissues produce only the weak mineralocorticoid corticosterone. However, both these zones do contain the CYP17A1 missing in zona glomerulosa and thus produce the major glucocorticoid, cortisol. Zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells also contain CYP17A1, whose 17,20-lyase activity is responsible for producing the androgens, dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Thus, fasciculata and reticularis cells can make corticosteroids and the adrenal androgens, but not aldosterone.

Once we have added in the necessary testosterone, the next step is controlling the impending estrogen and progesterone activity that will result from the use of the Nandrolone hormone. This makes the use of anti- estrogens highly recommended; most will need an Aromatase Inhibitor (AI). However, if we suppress estrogenic activity too much, this can lead to complications; it can lead to sexually related side effects as well as damage cholesterol. Conversely, if we do not control estrogen and let the hormone run wild, high levels of estrogen can lead to gynecomastia , water retention and also negatively affect sexual function. Find the right balance of testosterone to estrogen and you will not have a problem when stacking Deca Durabolin.

Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is thought to mainly function as a transporter and reservoir for the estradiol and testosterone sex hormones. However it has also been demonstrated that SHBG can bind to a cell surface receptor (SHBG-R). The SHBG-R has not been completely characterized. A subset of steroids are able to bind to the SHBG/SHBG-R complex resulting in an activation of adenylyl cyclase and synthesis of the cAMP second messenger. [19] Hence the SHBG/SHBG-R complex appears to act as a transmembrane steroid receptor that is capable of transmitting signals to the interior of cells.

Steroid hormone receptors and their regulation by phosphorylation

steroid hormone receptors and their regulation by phosphorylation

Once we have added in the necessary testosterone, the next step is controlling the impending estrogen and progesterone activity that will result from the use of the Nandrolone hormone. This makes the use of anti- estrogens highly recommended; most will need an Aromatase Inhibitor (AI). However, if we suppress estrogenic activity too much, this can lead to complications; it can lead to sexually related side effects as well as damage cholesterol. Conversely, if we do not control estrogen and let the hormone run wild, high levels of estrogen can lead to gynecomastia , water retention and also negatively affect sexual function. Find the right balance of testosterone to estrogen and you will not have a problem when stacking Deca Durabolin.

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