This is one of a set of measures used to assess the accuracy of a diagnostic test (see sensitivity, negative predictive value and positive predictive value). Specificity is the proportion of people without a disease who are correctly identified as not having that disease by the diagnostic test. For example, if a test has a specificity of 95%, this means that it correctly identified 95% of the people who did not have the disease, but that 5% of people without the disease were incorrectly diagnosed as having the disease (these people were ‘false positives’ on the test).
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The researchers plan to enroll pregnant women who are infected with HIV only, with Zika virus only, with HIV and Zika, and women not infected with either virus. The study is enrolling participants in Puerto Rico and will soon recruit volunteers at sites in the continental United States and Brazil. Study participants will be provided with appropriate treatment. Women will be monitored throughout their pregnancies and for six months after giving birth. Infants will be observed for a year after birth. The study will be conducted in two parts: In the initial phase, the researchers aim to recruit roughly 200 pregnant women; if their efforts are successful, they will then try to enroll 1,800 additional pregnant women. The study is expected to run from 4 to 6 years.