Mechanism of cardiotonic steroids

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are widely regarded as cardioprotective. Several large-scale, randomized clinical trials have shown that dietary intake of omega-3 PUFAs improves the prognosis of patients with symptomatic heart failure or recent myocardial infarction. Therefore, dietary consumption of omega-3 PUFA is recommended in international guidelines for the general population to prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of omega-3 PUFAs are not fully understood. Omega-3 PUFAs can be incorporated into the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes and can affect membrane fluidity, lipid microdomain formation, and signaling across membranes. Omega-3 PUFAs also modulate the function of membrane ion channels, such as Na and L-type Ca channels, to prevent lethal arrhythmias. Moreover, omega-3 PUFAs also prevent the conversion of arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory eicosanoids by serving as an alternative substrate for cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase, resulting in the production of less potent products. In addition, a number of enzymatically oxygenated metabolites derived from omega-3 PUFAs were recently identified as anti-inflammatory mediators. These omega-3 metabolites may contribute to the beneficial effects against CVDs that are attributed to omega-3 PUFAs.


Because of their effects on the body's capacity to deal with stress, coupled with their tonic activity, these herbs can be used in a huge number of conditions and situations. The particular adaptogens we use in each formulation will depend largely on the other actions attributed to each of these herbs as well as their energetics.

Astragalus :

As well as being adaptogenic, tonic and immune stimulating it is also cardiotonic and hypotensive with clinical trials reporting favorable outcomes in the treatment of cardiac problems. Further clinical studies have also demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of liver and kidney disease.

Ashwagandha-Withania somnifera :

Unlike most other adaptogens is slightly sedative rather than stimulating. It might be the most appropriate adaptogens to use in a person who is very hyped-up and finding it impossible to relax and slow down.

Contraindications

Panax ginseng in particular, is quite stimulating and warming. For long-term use it is probably best suited to older people, although it can certainly be used in the short-term for adults of any age as well as for adolescents. In some individuals it can increase anxiety and irritability so needs to be used cautiously in these situations. Similar effects from Siberian ginseng, although infrequently and with less severity. Panax also has the potential to increase blood pressure.

Panax ginseng, Siberian ginseng and Astragalus are contraindicated in acute infection. However, can be used with adaptogen/tonic herbs in the wake of an acute infection to ensure a full recovery.

In the SHIFT study, ivabradine significantly reduced the risk of the primary composite endpoint of hospitalization for worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death by 18% (P<) compared with placebo on top of optimal therapy. [14] These benefits were observed after 3 months of treatment. SHIFT also showed that administration of ivabradine to heart failure patients significantly reduced the risk of death from heart failure by 26% (P=) and hospitalization for heart failure by 26% (P<). The improvements in outcomes were observed throughout all prespecified subgroups: female and male, with or without beta-blockers at randomization, patients below and over 65 years of age, with heart failure of ischemic or non-ischemic etiology, NYHA class II or class III, IV, with or without diabetes, and with or without hypertension. [15]

Parts utilized
Pulp, fruit, shoots, leaves, seeds.

Uses
Edibility / Nutrition
- One of the commonest vegetables raised in the Philippines.
- Flesh is white and soft, boiled and seasoned or used in stews or with fish.
- Pulp is an ingredient in many confections.
- Fruit is a good source of iron, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin B.
- In West Tropical Africa, young shoots, leaves, and flower buds used as vegetable.
- Shoots boiled with milk or coconut milk to reduce the unpleasant flavor.
- Young fruits should be consumed within 2 weeks after harvest. Longer storage causes rapid water loss.
- In Japan , long strips of fruit skin are boiled, soaked in soya sauce with a little sugar, and used as sushi ingredient.
Folkloric
- Young shoots and leaves used for enema.
- Pulp used as purgative adjunct; also used for coughs, asthma, and poison antidote.
- Green fruit in syrup used as a pectoral.
- Leaf juice or sugared decoction used as emetic. Also used in jaundice.
- Crushed leaves used for baldness; applied to the head for headaches.
- Seeds also used as anthelmintic.
- Juice of fruit used for stomach acidity, indigestion and ulcers.
- Poultice of seeds used for boils.
- In the Gold Coast young shoots and leaves used for enema.
- Pulp occasionally used as a adjunct to purgatives. Also used in coughs, and as antidote to certain poisons.
- Externally the pulp is applied as a poultice and cooling preparation to the shaved head in cases of delirium and applied to the soles in burning of the feet.
- Seed oil used as emollient application to the head and as a means of relieving headache. Oil also administered internally.
- In Ayurveda , used as general tonic.
- In China , used for diabetes. Seed oil applied to headache. Decoction used in the treatment of anasarca, ascites, and beriberi. ( 50 )
Others
- The dry shell of the fruit used for domestic utensils, bowls, pipes, bottles, horns or musical instruments.
- Half-fruit shell used as a hat.
- In Kenya, the Luo make a large bugle from the bottle gourds, blown during ceremonies and chasing away animals. Also used for smoking cannabis.

Mechanism of cardiotonic steroids

mechanism of cardiotonic steroids

Parts utilized
Pulp, fruit, shoots, leaves, seeds.

Uses
Edibility / Nutrition
- One of the commonest vegetables raised in the Philippines.
- Flesh is white and soft, boiled and seasoned or used in stews or with fish.
- Pulp is an ingredient in many confections.
- Fruit is a good source of iron, calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin B.
- In West Tropical Africa, young shoots, leaves, and flower buds used as vegetable.
- Shoots boiled with milk or coconut milk to reduce the unpleasant flavor.
- Young fruits should be consumed within 2 weeks after harvest. Longer storage causes rapid water loss.
- In Japan , long strips of fruit skin are boiled, soaked in soya sauce with a little sugar, and used as sushi ingredient.
Folkloric
- Young shoots and leaves used for enema.
- Pulp used as purgative adjunct; also used for coughs, asthma, and poison antidote.
- Green fruit in syrup used as a pectoral.
- Leaf juice or sugared decoction used as emetic. Also used in jaundice.
- Crushed leaves used for baldness; applied to the head for headaches.
- Seeds also used as anthelmintic.
- Juice of fruit used for stomach acidity, indigestion and ulcers.
- Poultice of seeds used for boils.
- In the Gold Coast young shoots and leaves used for enema.
- Pulp occasionally used as a adjunct to purgatives. Also used in coughs, and as antidote to certain poisons.
- Externally the pulp is applied as a poultice and cooling preparation to the shaved head in cases of delirium and applied to the soles in burning of the feet.
- Seed oil used as emollient application to the head and as a means of relieving headache. Oil also administered internally.
- In Ayurveda , used as general tonic.
- In China , used for diabetes. Seed oil applied to headache. Decoction used in the treatment of anasarca, ascites, and beriberi. ( 50 )
Others
- The dry shell of the fruit used for domestic utensils, bowls, pipes, bottles, horns or musical instruments.
- Half-fruit shell used as a hat.
- In Kenya, the Luo make a large bugle from the bottle gourds, blown during ceremonies and chasing away animals. Also used for smoking cannabis.

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